of the Priory of Saint Michael and
Saint George of New York City
|| 2007 -
|| Chevalier W. Michael Margolin, GOTJ
2004 - 2007
Michael Harrison Charles, GOTJ
1996 - 2004
Edmund Voyer GCTJ, GMTJ
1994 - 1996
Robert E. Gorman, GCTJ
1987 – 1994
Col. Harding Isaacson, GCTJ
1983 - 1987
Hamilton R. Wager, GCTJ
1980 – 1983
Edward A. Gillespie, GCTJ
1976 - 1980
Col. Robert L. Bentley GCTJ
1972 - 1976
Thomas Darlington GCTJ, GMTJ
1968 - 1972
Daniel Coleman, GCTJ, GMTJ
1964 - 1968
History of the Order
1095 when Pope Urban II issued the call for the First
Crusade, the Western Christian World saw this as a defensive
action. Since the early 8th century Europe had been under
ceaseless attack from Islamic forces, beginning with the
Iberian Peninsula. Not only was most of Christian Spain
conquered, but Islamic armies penetrated into the heart of
France, only to be halted by Charles Martel in 732. Still,
Islamic forces continued to threaten Europe, occupying
Sicily, most of Southern Italy, and even besieging Rome in
846 and sacking St. Peter’s Basilica. Yet the First Crusade
was not directed at Islam itself, but against the Seljuk
Turks, who in their conquest of Palestine replaced the
previous Arab tolerance of Christian pilgrims with
intolerance and violence.
By the end of July, 1099 the First Crusade had achieved its
objective of restoring the Holy Places to Christian control.
It was one thing to conquer; now the challenge was to rule.
Immediately two problems confronted the newly created
Kingdom of Jerusalem, being one of the worse examples of
feudal fragmentation. The vassals of the King of Jerusalem
were carving out their own feudal estates and becoming more
powerful than their suzerain. They were even engaging in
conflict among themselves, often hindering efforts to
counter any renewed threat from Islam. The second problem
was the lack of a reliable fighting force to defend the
conquest. Once the Crusade was finished, most of the
surviving crusaders, having fulfilled their vows, returned
home. The Knights Templar would provide the solution by
becoming the first international standing army.
The opportunity came in 1118-19, when an idealistic band of
knights led by Hugues de Payens offered their services to
protect pilgrims in route to the Holy Places. Organizing
themselves into a religious community, vows were made to the
Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. Baldwin II, king of
Jerusalem, provided them with quarters in what had been the
al-Aqsa Mosque, thought to be part of Solomon’s Temple. They
became known as the Poor Knights of Christ of the Temple of
Solomon, or simply the Knights of the Temple. Perhaps it was
the king, who saw in these Poor Knights of Christ, the
opportunity to create a fighting force. This was reinforced
when the counts of Anjou and Champaigne joined the Order.
Now events moved to Europe. If this humble group of knights
was to become an effective military force, papal
recognition, autonomy, and an economic foundation had to be
acquired. Hugues de Payens himself went to Europe on a
mission to gain support and recruit new members. More
importantly the support of the outstanding church leader of
the period was enlisted, Bernard, the Cistercian abbot of
Clairvaux. In 1128-29 a Council was held at Troyes in
Champaigne in which The Order of the Temple was recognized
and provided with a Rule, drafted under Bernard’s guidance.
Pope Honorius II approved the recognition, with Hugues de
Payens becoming the first Master of the Temple. It was
Bernard de Clairvaux, who grasped the historical
significance, when he wrote in De
laude novae militae
(In Praise of a New Knighthood) that a new type of
Order had been created, consisting of laymen who blended the
knightly and monastic life. These soldier-monks would fight
to protect Christian interests.
While Hugues de Payens had been the leader with a mission
and a vision, an individual possessed of administrative
talent was needed. That was Robert de Craon, who became
Master of the Temple c 1136. By his death in 1149, a series
of popes had granted privileges that made the Templars an
autonomous corporate body, answerable only to the papacy.
Papal and royal exemptions allowed the Templars to become
economically independent, financing their overseas military
endeavors in great part from European donations of land and
money. In the process the Templars fashioned the first
European-wide system of international banking. Their
convents, particularly in London and Paris became
“clearing-houses” for the deposit, disbursement and transfer
of funds. The system’s reliability for efficiency and
honesty attracted church leaders and kings to entrust their
funds and valuables to Templar security.
Their independence allowed the Templars to create an
effective fighting force, a naval fleet, and a defensive
system of fortresses in Palestine/Syria. Within the Iberian
Peninsula, Templars supported the Reconquista, led by the
Spanish and Portuguese kings. At the height of their power
in the 13th century the Order had around 7000 members,
including knights, sergeants-at-arms,
non-military-sergeants, brothers, and priests. Their network
consisted of some 870 castles, preceptories and convents
spread throughout most of Christian Europe, Palestine and
Syria. They inspired both the Hospitallers and the Teutonic
Knights to adopt military roles. The Templars served as a
model for new military orders established by the rulers
within the Iberian Peninsula, such as Calatrava in Castile
and Santiago in Leon.
In 1146 Pope Eugenius III granted the Templars the privilege
of wearing the Red Cross or Cross Patteé on their mantles as
symbolic of their willingness to shed their blood. Noted
for their bravery, determination and discipline, much of the
burden for the defense of the Crusader States fell upon
them. Described as “lions in battle” thousands of Templars
gave their lives as they won everlasting glory in such
battles as Cresson, Hattin, La Forbie and Mansurah. Despite
their efforts Jerusalem was lost to
Saladin in 1187. The Templars established themselves at
Acre, following the limited success of the Third
Crusade. After the loss of Acre in 1291, the Templars, evacuating their last castles in
Palestine/Syria, retreated to the island of Cyprus.
Now began the blame game. Who was responsible for the loss
of the Crusader States? The Templars may have shared in the
blame, due to ineffectual leadership and involvement in
politics. But there were more important reasons, such as the
failure to establish an effective political order in
Palestine and the tendency of the great lords to become
embroiled in political intrigue instead of defending the
Kingdom against the common enemy. The arrival of new
crusaders insisting upon pursuing the Holy War often upset
the balance of power that had been achieved between the
Christians and Moslems, thus encouraging a strong Islamic
reaction. The problem of leadership was never solved. Even
the kings made poor leaders of the Crusades, since their
political distrust followed them to Palestine and they, too,
had to return to their home kingdoms.
The idealism and moral inspiration of the First Crusade
became tarnished and corrupted by greed for political power
and wealth. Finally, there was the Islamic reaction that
found effective leaders, such as Saladin, to lead the
counter-attack to the European presence in the Middle East.
In short, the odds were not only against the survival of the
Crusader States but against the Templars as an enduring
fighting force in the Middle East.
By the late 13th century questions were being raised about
the effectiveness of the military orders, with proposals
being made to unify them. The fall of Acre made the issue
more pressing. While both the Hospitallers and the Teutonic
Knights found new roles for themselves, the Templars lacked
economic resources that were essential for any renewal of
their military prowess due to the loss of lands in Palestine
and Syria, the decline from patrons of gifts of land and
money, the curtailing of their exemptions, and the impact of
inflation. Recruitment became more difficult as the Templars
became an aging Order. Moreover, the appearance of
possessing great wealth became the kiss of death. Rulers,
motivated by greed and jealousy, took advantage of the
Templars’ loss of credibility and respect. Already in the
early 14th century English kings had violated the temple of
the Templars in London.
Ultimately the fate of the Templars would be decided within
France. Philip IV, King of France made the move to challenge
the continued existence of the Templars. Taking advantage of
rumors of Templar corruption (no doubt exaggerated) and of a
weak and compliant Pope, in 1307 Philip IV ordered the
arrest of all Templars in France, including the Master of
the Temple, Jacques de Molay. Pope Clement V ordered an
investigation into the charges leveled against the Templars.
Under immense political pressure the Pope ordered the arrest
of all Templars within Christian Europe and the seizure of
their property. In an attempt to resolve the Templar issue,
Clement V convoked the Council of Vienne in 1312. The lack
of credible incriminating evidence led the majority of the
council fathers to conclude that the charges lacked merit.
Then the Pope on his own authority issued the Bull, Vox
in excelso, dissolving the Order. Templars were to be
pensioned off and their property turned over to the
Hospitallers. The final act came on March 18, 1314, when
Philip IV ordered the execution by fire of Jacques de Molay
and Geoffroy de Charnay as relapsed heretics. Finding
courage at the end, they both vigorously denied the charges
against the Order.
While the widespread Templar saga had come to an end, for a
period of time Templar tradition continued to survive
within frontier areas of Christian Europe. After Templars
played a significant role in the Scottish victory at
Bannockburn on June 24, 1314, Robert the Bruce joined the
Templars and Hospitallers into a new Order of the Temple and
of St. John. In the Iberian Peninsula, new military orders
were formed under direct royal control. In Aragon King James
II established the Order of Montesa, while in Portugal the
Order of Christ was created. Perhaps the last Templars were
two men who had survived the fall of Acre. About 1340 they
were discovered, married with families, serving a Sultan in
Palestine. They were repatriated, provided with pensions,
and received with great honor by the papal court.
No historical evidence has surfaced to date that suggests
the Templars survived as an “underground” order after 1314,
either on the continent of Europe or in Scotland. The last
Grand Master, Jacques de Molay, remained faithful to his
Catholic Church, despite the papal suppression of the Order
and persecution by the French Inquisition under the control
of Philip IV. Providing for the secret survival of the Order
would have required Jacques de Molay to repudiate the
authority of the Church. Instead, remaining a faithful
Catholic, he suffered a martyr’s death for his principles.
Legends regarding such a secret survival, with hidden Grand
Masters, appeared only in the 18th Century as part of
continental and Scottish Freemasonry, and later to provide
credibility for the Templar “restoration” in 1804.
The Order of the Temple had ended, but Templarism survived
in a misty world of legend and myth, due to the
controversial ending of the Order and the heroic death of
its leaders. In the early 18th century Templarism
re-appeared as part of Scottish Rite Freemasonry in France,
attracting members of the French nobility. In France this
Templarism, reminiscent of Philip II’s Spanish Armada
against Protestant England, became a Crusade to restore a
Catholic Stuart king not only to Scotland, but also to
In 1736 Andrew Michael Ramsay, a Scottish Freemason and
Catholic, delivered a speech to the Masonic Lodge in Paris,
insisting that Freemasonry had begun in Palestine among the
crusades, particularly the military orders. The result was a
frenzy of new rituals, symbols, and myths based on the
Crusades and the military orders. When the battle of
Culloden in1746 ended any hope of a Stuart restoration,
French Freemasonry began to develop its own identity.
Now a German noble and Freemason, the Baron Karl von Hund,
revealed his belief that he had discovered a new form of
Freemasonry, known as the Strict Observance, directly
descendant from the Templars. It was based on Templar
survival in the British Isles, particularly in Scotland.
This myth of Templar survival became very popular among
various Masonic lodges. Meanwhile continental lodges were
being influenced by the rationalism of the Enlightenment
with many members becoming supporters of revolutionary
change directed against absolute monarchy and a social order
based on birth and privilege. Then came the French
Revolution in 1789, with its promise of a New Order founded
on brotherhood, equality and liberty.
Out of the turmoil created by the Revolution, a “child of
the Revolution”, Napoleon Bonaparte, rose to power,
promising to spread the ideals of the Revolution to all of
Europe. After conquering most of continental Europe, he had
himself proclaimed Emperor. In that same year of 1804, a new
form of Templarism appeared. A “restored”
Ordre du Temple evolved out of the Chevaliers de la Croix, a
rather conservative Masonic lodge in Paris. The founders
included Claude-Mathieu, Radix de Chevillon; a medical
doctor, Ledru; and a chiropodist, Fabre-Palaprat, known as
“a leading Masonic figure.” Fabre-Palaprat accepted the
office of Grand Master.
At the same time two interesting documents surfaced. One was
the Charter of Transmission, by which an alleged successor
to de Molay, Jean M. Larmenius provided for the “secret”
survival of the Knights Templars. This document, written in
ciphers, also included in cipher the “signatures” ”of Grand
Masters from Larmenius to Fabre-Palaprat. Conflicting Latin
translations only appeared after 1804. The second document
was the Statutes of 1705, thought to have been written
under the direction of Philip, the Duke of Orleans, whom the
founders of 1804 claimed as a restorer of the Templars.
For motives of his own, Napoleon Bonaparte approved of this
“restoration”, even allowing a grand ceremony in Paris,
honoring de Molay and all other Templar martyrs. Napoleon,
upon becoming Emperor, created a new nobility. Perhaps he
saw these new Templars as serving as a counter-balance to
the Masonic lodges, whom he distrusted due to their
political radicalism. By1808, through successful recruitment
the new Order had established Priories and Commanderies
throughout most of the Grand Empire, including Italy and
Switzerland. Ties to its Masonic origins were severed, with
this Order of the Temple proclaiming its autonomy and
adherence to “the Catholic Apostolic and Roman religion.”
This promising beginning was quickly dashed by
Fabre-Palaprat When he revised the Statutes of 1705 to
justify assuming absolute power, a schism erupted that
lasted until 1814. When unity was finally restored, the
Order once again prospered. When constitutional monarchy
was established in France, the Order supported the restored
Bourbon King, Louis XVIII, and the king in return granted
the Templars recognition. When Charles X attempted to
restore royal absolutism, the Templars supported the revolt
of 1830 and the return of constitutional monarchy.
Once again Fabre-Palaprat became the source of contention.
Earlier he had formed the Johannite Church of the Primitive
Christians, based on a spurious version of the Gospel of St.
John, and the Levitikon, another document “discovered” by
Fabre-Palaprat. When, in 1833, he attempted to impose his
Johannite beliefs upon the Templars, the result was once
more schism. One faction retained its chivalric traditions
and obedience to the Catholic Church. The death of
Fabre-Palaprat in 1838 provided another opportunity for
unity. This attempt failed when the French palaprien
Templars refused to accept the choice of Sir William
Sidney-Smith, the British Grand Prior, as Grand Master.
Within France, the palaprien Templars continued to choose
Regents until they had faded from existence by 1870. Many
Templar priories then became autonomous.
The Templar revival in the 20th century owed its existence
to developments within the Grand Priory of Belgium, which
had been founded under Fabre-Palaprat in 1825. Factional
disputes between Catholic and Masonic members, along with
European political developments, resulted in its
disappearance. In 1932, several former members established a
new Grand Priory, taking the name of The Sovereign and
Military Order of
the Temple of Jerusalem. Hoping to re-establish this Order
of the Temple as an international organization, a regency
was formed. Emile-Isaac Vandenberg, as regent, devoted much
of his energy to revitalizing Templar Priories across
Europe, including France, Italy, Portugal and Switzerland.
Such a promising development was cut short by the Second
World War. Viewing the German occupation of Belgium as a
danger to Templar survival, Vandenberg made a temporary
transfer of the leadership and archives of the Order to the
care of the Portuguese Grand Prior, Antonio Campello de
Sousa Fontes. Once the war had ended, Vandenberg requested
the return of the archives. Then de Sousa Fontes took
advantage of the sudden death of Vandenberg to assume the
title of Regent. Once more there was schism, with some
Priories rejecting his leadership. In 1960
Fernando Campello de Sousa Fontes succeeded his father,
taking the title of Prince Regent.
The history of the American Grand Priory began with the
Grand Priory of Switzerland. By 1960 Anton Leuprecht, the
Grand Prior of Switzerland, was receiving Americans into the
Swiss Grand Priory. As more Americans became Templars, in
1962 Anton Leuprecht and several American Templars,
including William Y. Pryor, initiated action to form an
American Autonomous Grand Priory. It was decided to
incorporate the American Grand Priory in the State of New
Jersey. The seven founders signed the Corporate Charter on
June 4. 1962. They were Crolian W. Edelen, William Y. Pryor,
Herschel S. Murphy, Warren S. Hall, Jr., John D. Leet,
Lawrence Stratton and George J. Deyo. The corporate
documents were filed on June 13, 1962, with official
recognition by the State of New Jersey taking place on June
29 of the same year. Crolian William Edelen became the first
After the Prince Regent, de Sousa Fontes had recognized the
American Grand Priory, in April of 1964 the Grand Prior of
the USA asked Peter II, the former king of Yugoslavia, to
become the Royal Patron of the American Grand Priory. Upon
the King’s acceptance he was made a Knight Grand Cross.
Peter II remained the American Royal Patron until his death
on November 4, 1970.
In 1970 the Prince Regent convoked a Convent General of The
Sovereign Military Order of The Temple of Jerusalem, with
one session to meet in Chicago, Illinois, showing the
growing importance of the American Grand Priory. At the
Chicago Convent, it was decided that while the Catholic
roots of the Order would be honored, the Order would be open
to all Christian membership. Nearly 20 years later in 1990,
the Prince Regent issued revised Statutes for the Order on
his own authority, which allowed him to assume the title of
Grand Master and to designate his successor. Once more
dispute and division resulted, with Grand Priories
re-affirming or revoking their ties to de Sousa Fontes.
Under the leadership of two American Grand Priors, Donald
Roderick Perkins and his successor James J. Carey, the
American Grand Priory assumed an important role in the
international arena of Templar affairs, working towards
healing the division among the Grand Priories, bringing
about reform and resolving the divisive issue of the Prince
In the Fall of 1995 a Templar Grand Convent met in Salzburg,
Austria. When the Prince Regent refused to recognize this
Convent and to accept a compromise, offering him the title
of Prince Regent Emeritus, a consensus was reached to
withdraw recognition from his leadership. A Council of Grand
Priors was formed to administer the Order, led by Col.
Joseph Esposito, Grand Prior General of NATO. A second
meeting was held at Salzburg in November of 1996 to approve
revised statutes and consider candidates for Grand Master.
This convent ended in dispute and division.
To retain some semblance of unity and to promote continued
reform, the American Grand Priory led the effort to form an
International Grand Council with Major General Sir Roy
Redgrave, K.B.E., the British Grand Prior, as Grand
Commander. This resulted in the creation of the North
Atlantic Obedience of O.S.M.T.H., whose membership included
Grand Priories from the United States, England-Wales,
Scotland, Ireland, France, Scandinavia and NATO. Since 1997
the goal of this organization has been to develop practical
steps towards a confederation of Templar Grand Priories,
allowing for the election of a Grand Master.
Meanwhile in 1997 the American Grand Priory found a new
Royal Patron in Princess Elisabeth of Ysenberg und Büdingen,
Princess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. Since
her appointment, Princess Elisabeth has played a significant
role in the affairs not only of the American Grand Priory,
but of the Atlantic Obedience of Grand Priories.
Copyright 2000, The Sovereign Military Order of the Temple
of Jerusalem, Inc.
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Chronology of the Order
(The following is based on the acknowledged and appreciated
works of Chev. Robert J. Kovarik, Ph.D., GOTJ)
1095 Pope Urban II called the First Crusade at Clermont in
1099 Jerusalem taken by the First Crusade in July.
1100 The Hospitaller Order of St. John was founded by Gerard
(Geraldus) the Hospitaller. St. John the Almoner was the
patron of hospital work. Recognized by Pope Pascal II in
1113. Gerard died in 1120.
1118/19 Hugues de Payens and Godefroi de Saint-Omer formed
a religious community to protect pilgrims. These nine
knights, making their vows before the Latin Patriarch of
Jerusalem, Warmund of Picquigny, accepted the Augustinian
Rule under the guidance of the canons of the Church of the
Holy Sepulchre. As part of their profession, it was agreed
“that they should protect the roads and routes to the utmost
of their ability against the ambushes of thieves and
attackers, especially in regard to the safety of pilgrims.”
(William, Archbishop of Tyre). Baldwin II, King of
Jerusalem, provided quarters in part of his palace (the
site of al-Aqsa Mosque) thought to be remains of Solomon’s
Temple. First known as The Poor Knights of Christ; they were
later called The Knights of the Temple (militia templi).
1120 Fulk V, count of Anjou joined the Order in the Holy
Land as a lay associate.
1123 Raymond du Puy, the new Hospitaller master, began the
transition of his Order from a charitable/care of pilgrims
order into a partially military one. Only after the Third
Crusade did it become a primarily military order.
1125 Hugues, Compte de Champaigne, after ceding his lands,
joined the Order in the Holy Land.
1126 With a delegation of knights, Hugues de Payens traveled
to France to recruit members and to seek support from the
Cistercian abbot, Bernard de Clairvaux, in obtaining papal
recognition and the creation of a “rule of life.”
1128 Hugues de Payens visited England and Scotland to seek
recruits for the Order. By this date the Templars were
actively supporting the King of Aragon, Alfonso I, “the
1128/29 At the Council of Troyes The Order of the Temple was
recognized and a Rule was approved based on the
Benedictine/Cistercian model. Known as The Latin Rule, it
consisted of 76 articles. The white mantle of the
Cistercians was adopted by the professed knights as symbolic
of loyalty and purity of life. Pope Honorius II (1124-30)
approved the recognition. Hugues de Payens was chosen as the
first Master of the Temple (Magister Militae Templi).
Magister Militum was the title for the commander-in-chief in
the Western Roman Empire.
1130 Raymond-Berengar III, count of Barcelona and Provence,
joined the Templars as a lay associate.
1130s Early in the thirties the Templars acquired castles
and fortresses in northern Syria, such as Baghras (Gaston),
Darbsak (Trapesak), La Roche de Roussel and La Roche
1136 By this date Bernard de Clairvaux wrote De Laude
Novae Militae in which he described the Templars as “a
new type of order in the Holy Places.” The Order was seen as
a fusion of knightly and monastic life. The Order of St.
Lazarus was founded with links to the Templars. At the death
of Hugues de Payens, Robert de Craon (Burgundy) was chosen
as the second Master of the Temple. As “the great
administrator”, he recognized the need for papal support and
freedom from local church authorities.
1139 Pope Innocent II (1130-43) in his bull, Omne datum
optimum, brought the Templars under direct papal
authority, providing them with privileges and exemptions
that made them an autonomous corporate body, allowing them
to secure an economic base for financing military activities
in the Holy Land. They were to defend the Church against all
enemies of the Cross.
1144 Pope Celestine II (1143-44) issued his bull, Milites
Templi, adding more privileges. The Templars could now
collect their own funds.
1145 Pope Eugenius III (1145-53) called the Second Crusade.
He issued the bull, Militi Dei, allowing the Templars
to have their own churches and clergy exempt from episcopal
control. Subsequent popes would reissue these bulls, adding
1146 Pope Eugenius III permitted the Templars to add the red
cross (Patteé) on the left breast of their tunics and the
shoulder of their mantles, symbolizing willingness to shed
their blood and die for the Faith.
1160 Military orders, modeled on the Templars, were founded
in the Spanish kingdoms, such as the orders of Alcantara,
Calatrava and Santiago. Templars were supporting the rulers
of Aragon, Leon and Castile in the Reconquista. Under
Gualdim Pais, the first Templar Master in Portugal, the
castle of Tomar was built. Templars played an active role in
the expansion of the Kingdom of Portugal.
1163 The Retrais et establissements de Temple was
added to the Rule, covering the conventual life, defining
the hierarchical status, regulating the chapters, election
of the Master, determining the penance and punishments for
violations of the Rule and Statutes, and admission to the
Order. Pope Alexander III (1158-81) recognized the amended
Rule. The following motto was inscribed on the Templars
black and white standard: Non nobis, Domine, non nobis
sed nomini tuo da gloriam. The Order’s seal showed two
knights on horseback with the inscription: Sigillum
militum Christi. A French translation of the Rule became
known as The French Ancient Rule. An Aragonese translation
was known as The Catalan Rule. It required the Templars to
swear fealty to the rulers of Aragon.
1187 Saladin defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin,
resulting in the loss of Jerusalem. Over 200 Templars were
killed. Pope Gregory VIII called the Third Crusade. The
Hospitallers and Templars established themselves on the
island of Cyprus. Templars developed a naval force.
1190 By the nineties the development of a network of Templar
preceptories within Europe allowed them to become a major
economic power with a reputation for providing reliable,
honest and efficient financial services. The temples in
London and Paris served as treasuries patronized by the
rulers of England and France, as well as by the nobility.
The Templars were pioneering international banking.
1191 The Port of Acre captured by the Third Crusade. It
became the new Templar headquarters.
1198 The Teutonic Knights founded at Acre.
1228 The Templars supported the conquest of Majorca and
Valencia in 1238 by Alfonso II, King of Aragon.
1244 The Templars suffered a serious defeat at the battle of
1250 The battle of Mansurah in Egypt was a disaster for
Louis IX of France and the Templars.
1271 The Mamluk sultan of Egypt, Baibars, captured the major
fortress of the Hospitallers at Chastel-Blanc, of the
Templars at Krak du Chevalier, and of the Teutonic Knights
at Montfort (Syria).
1274 At a church council in Lyon, France, a proposal to
merge the Hospitallers and the Templars was discussed,
revealing doubts about the future of the Christian presence
in the Holy Land.
1291 With the fall of Acre to the Mamluks, Cyprus became
again the Templar military headquarters. The Templars
evacuated the castles of Tortosa and of ‘Atlit, ending their
presence in the Holy Land. The Templars lost not only their
land base but their raison d’etre.
1292 Jacques de Molay became Master of the Temple.
1300 By now the Templars failed to justify their continued
existence as a military order, and had no secondary mission
as the Hospitallers did. They appeared to have given their
economic interests the higher priority, allowing enemies
jealous of their wealth and power to begin accusing them of
corruption and blaming them for the loss of the Holy Land.
1305 Both Pierre Dubois and Ramon Lull recommended that the
Hospitallers and Templars be fused into one military order.
1307 Already Edward I and Edward II had violated the temple
of the Templars in London. Philip IV of France, heavily in
debt, saw his opportunity. Rumors circulating of Templar
corruption were turned into fact. In October Philip ordered
the arrest of all Templars in France, turning them over to
the Inquisition. Under pressure Pope Clement V (1305-14)
agreed to an investigation. The bull, Pastoralis
Praeeminentiae, ordered the arrest of the Templars in the
1308 Under pressure from the pope, Edward II ordered the
arrest of all Templars in England with their property coming
under royal control. What remained of the property was
turned over to the Hospitallers in 1323.
1311 Except in France and areas under French dominance the
charges against the Templars were not substantiated. The
crisis forced the pope to convoke a council.
1312 The Council of Vienne found that the charges against
the Templars lacked merit. On his own authority Pope Clement
V issued a bull, Vox in excelso on March 2,
dissolving the Templar Order. A second bull, Ad
proviendan, turned over Templar property to the
Hospitallers, partly to pay pensions for ex-Templars. In
Scotland the bull was not promulgated since the King, Robert
the Bruce, was under excommunication. It would appear that
Templars from France had fled to Scotland, some taking
refuge with the Saint-Clairs of Rosslyn. Templar support
seemed to have been crucial for the Scottish victory over
the English at Bannockburn on June 24, 1314. The King fused
the Templars with the Hospitallers into the Order of the
Temple and of St. John. This Order was suppressed by the
Scottish Reformation Parliament in the 16th century.
1314 On the evening of March 18, Jacques de Molay and
Geoffrey de Charnay, the Preceptor of Normandy, were burned
to death on an island in the Seine. Both had recanted their
previous confessions, which had been obtained under torture.
1317 Pope John XXII (1316-34) approved the request of King
James II of Aragon to form a new military order, that of
Montesa. Templar property in Aragon along with Hospitaller
property in Valencia were turned over to this new Order.
Since there were few Templars remaining, knights from the
Order of Calatrava were asked to join Montesa. The first
Master was a Calatrava knight.
1319 In Portugal Pope John XXII approved the request of King
Deniz to organize Templar property and remaining members
into a new military order: The Order of Christ. Unlike the
Spanish military orders that became increasingly chivalric
and under direct royal control after 1500, the Order of
Christ continued its military role by supporting Portuguese
expansion into Africa and Asia. Its most famous Grand Master
was King Henry the Navigator.
1571 Templar archives in Cyprus, now in the possession of
the Hospitallers, appeared to have been destroyed by the
1660 The Order of Lazarus was restored in France by King
Henry IV (1589-1610) as the Order of Our Lady of Mount
Carmel and of St. Lazarus; while in Italy the Pope made the
duke of Savoy the hereditary Grand Master of a restored
Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus.
1715 Upon becoming Regent of France, Philip, the Duke of
Orleans, involved himself in the military orders within
France. His legitimate son became the Grand Master of the
Order of Mount Carmel and Lazarus, while an illegitimate son
became a Knight Hospitaller and Grand Prior of that Order in
France. In 1314 the former Templar Temple in Paris had
become the Hospitallers’ headquarters. The “restorers” of
the Order of the Temple in 1804 will claim that the Templars
had survived after 1314 with a line of secret Grand Masters
leading to the Duke of Orleans, who seemingly ended the
Templars hidden existence by holding a Convent General at
Versailles that recognized the Duke as Grand Master and
issued the Statutes of 1705.
1717 In London English Freemasonry began its institutional
history with the combination of four small lodges into the
Grand Lodge. Already a Scottish Rite Freemasonry had
developed as more of a political force for the restoration
of the Stuarts. Medieval Templar traditions had become part
of various noble clans. By the 18th century such Templar
traditions now infused with legend and myth became part of
1730 Scottish Masonry began to spread to France as part of
an exiled Jacobite political force. The Grand Masters of the
early French lodges were Jacobite Scottish nobles. Members
of the French aristocracy were attracted to this Freemasonry
due to its nature as pro-Catholic/Stuart and
1736 Andrew Michael Ramsay, a Scottish Freemason and convert
to Catholicism, who had been received as a knight
(Chevalier) into the Order of Mount Carmel and Lazarus under
the Duke of Orleans, delivered an Oration to the Masonic
Lodge in Paris, claiming that Masonry had begun in the Holy
Land among the crusades. Masonic lodges began to adopt
rituals and symbols associated with the medieval military
1742 A German noble, the Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund, was
received into the Scottish Masonic Rite while in Paris.
1745 After the failure of the rebellion led by the “Young
Pretender” Bonnie Prince Charlie, Jacobite Freemasonry
gradually died out in France. Adopting the more moderate
approach of the Grand Lodge of England, French Freemasonry
became more Deistic, advocating the ideals of the
Enlightenment. This contributed to the papal condemnation of
1750 Upon his return to Germany Karl von Hund claimed a
“new” form of Freemasonry directly descendant from the
Templars, who had continued the Order in Scotland after its
suppression. Known as the Strict Observance, it brought much
of the occult, the magical and the mystical into continental
Freemasonry. To support his claims, he provided a list of
alleged “secret Grand Masters”, beginning with Aumont and
Wildgaf de Salm, who allegedly fled to the island of Mull in
1312, where they preserved “the secret beliefs” of the
1789 At the beginning of the French Revolution the National
Assembly abolished “medieval” associations, including the
military Order of Mount Carmel and Lazarus. In 1791 the more
radical National Convention abolished the Hospitaller Grand
Priory, confiscating the former Templar Temple in Paris,
turning it into a prison. The most famous inmates would be
the King of France, Louis XVI, and his family.
1804 A “restored” Ordre du Temple evolved out a Masonic
lodge in Paris, that of the Chevaliers de la Croix,
associated with the Grand Orient. Three members, Ledru, a
medical doctor; de Courchamp, a notary; and de Saintot,
appeared to have founded the Ordre du Temple. A noble,
Claude-Mathieu, Radix de Chevillon (un homme de paille)
provided a connection with the alleged last secret Grand
Master, the Count of Cossé-Brissac, and a source for the
Larmenius, Charter of Transmission, that purportedly proved
the survival of the Templars after 1314. Chevillon also
ennobled the three founders and made them “Princes of the
Order.” The Charter was written in ciphers, with Latin
versions appearing only after 1804. The Statutes of 1705
were also discovered with spurious relics. Bernard-Raymond
Fabré-Palaprat, a chiropodist and “a leading Masonic
figure,” was included among the founders. When Chevillon
refused to serve as Grand Master, Fabré-Palaprat accepted
the office. He was the last to sign the Charter of
Transmission using the ciphers. This “restoration” had the
approval of the newly proclaimed Emperor of France, Napoleon
Bonaparte. Distrustful of the anti-monarchical principles of
Freemasonry, perhaps he saw this Order of the Temple as an
alternative that would appeal to his newly created nobility
and to his supporters. Noble members of the Masonic Lodge of
St. Caroline were recruited.
1806 The Templar Order had developed its structure and
organized itself as a chivalric, hospitable, tolerant,
traditional and universal institution.
1808 The success of recruitment resulted in the
establishment of Priories and Commanderies within the Grand
Empire. Candidates that did not possess proof of nobility
were ennobled. To further separate itself from its Masonic
origins, the Order “professed the Catholic Apostolic and
Roman religion.” Membership was refused to Protestants. The
Order revealed its public existence at a grand ceremony at
the Church of St. Paul, honoring Jacques de Molay and other
martyrs of the Templars.
1812 By now Fabré-Palaprat with a certain Mauviel, the
former Constitutional Bishop of Cayes in Haiti, had formed
the Johannite Church of the Primitive Christians. It was
based on an unorthodox version of the Gospel of St. John and
the Levitikon, another document “discovered” by
Fabré-Palaprat, who was then consecrated a bishop by Mauviel.
Fabré-Palaprat now added the title of Sovereign Pontiff &
Patriarch to that of Grand Master. This caused dissension
within the Order. Fabré-Palaprat resigned as Grand Master on
November 21 and conferred the Mastership on de Courchant.
Regretting his resignation, Fabré-Palaprat politically
maneuvered are turn as Grand Master by December 19. This
resulted in the first schism, with the dissidents choosing
Charles-Louis Le Peletier, count of Aunay, as Grand Master.
1814 In England, Admiral Sir William Sidney-Smith, who had
fought in the naval war against Napoleon; the duke of
Sussex, son of George III; and Charles Tennyson d’Eyncourt,
uncle of the poet, formed an Order of the Temple.
Fabré-Palaprat recognized Sir William Sidney-Smith as the
Grand Prior of England. In France the restored Bourbon King,
Louis XVIII gave the Templars his royal protection, fearing
various groups opposed to the monarchy. This encouraged a
reunion of the Order with the resignation of the Count of
Aunay “for the good and peace of the order.” Sir William
Sidney-Smith played an important role in this
1820 Sir Walter Scott wrote Ivanhoe. Along with The
Talisman, this work contributed towards “disfiguring” the
medieval Templars, portraying them as greedy, lecherous,
tainted with heresyand subverting the crusades for their
ends. His works influenced both the American and English
view of the Templars.
1821 Fabré-Palaprat appointed the count of Chabrillan as
Prior for the Grand Priory of Switzerland, founded in 1809.
1825 The Grand Priory of Belgium was founded July 18 in
Paris by the Marquis Albert-Francoise du Chasteleer, a close
friend of Fabré-Palaprat.
1830 French Templars supported the revolt against Charles X,
who threatened the return of absolute monarchy. Templars
also supported the Belgian revolt against Dutch control,
resulting in the independence of Belgium in 1831.
1833 Fabré-Palaprat had begun to impose his Johannite
beliefs on the Templars, demanding they accept his “new
faith.” He was accused to revising the Statutes of 1705,
giving himself absolute authority. The result was another
schism. Various Grand Priories chose autonomy.
1837 In poor health Fabré-Palaprat retired to the south of
France. Dissident Templars, seized the opportunity and
established an Executive Commission, which convoked a
1838 The death of Fabré-Palaprat in February opened the way
for reform and the possible reunion of the two Templar
factions. The Convent General formed a new Executive
Commission. Since the Statues of 1705 had been “corrupted”
under Fabré-Palaprat, the Convent General approved a new
document, removing the Johannite influence and “renewed the
knightly traditions and obedience to the Catholic Church.”
The attempt to reunify the more orthodox and palaprien
factions failed. When Sir William Sidney-Smith was chosen as
Grand Master, the palaprien Templars refused to recognize
1840 Upon the death of Sir William Sidney-Smith it would
appear that the Prince de Chimay assumed leadership of the
orthodox Templars. In 1845 he went to Rome to request papal
recognition. Pope Gregory XVI (1831-46) insisted that all
Templars had to be Catholic. Talks continued until the
Revolutions of 1848. The palaprien Templars chose a series
of Regents from Fabré-Palaprat’s Lieutenant-Generals. Under
Jean-Marie Raoul these Templars became inactive due to
declining membership. Reacting to the confusion in France, a
Magisterial Legation was formed in Brussels.
1853 By decree, Emperor Napoleon III recognized the Order of
the Temple (palaprien) as a sovereign power with the right
to wear its insignias and decorations within France.
1865 The Belgian Grand Priory split, with the Catholics
forming the Priory of St. John d’Hiver and the palaprien
Templars creating the Priory of the Trinity of the Tower,
adopting the Strict Observant Freemasonry of Karl von Hund.
1866 A.G.M Vernois became the last Regent of the palaprien
faction. In 1871 he deposited the records of the Order into
the National Archives of France.
1868 Prosper Beechman of the Trinity of the Tower tried to
restore an International Order despite serious divisions
between the English, French and German Grand Priories. At a
Chapter General he was recognized as the Guardian of the
Grand Magisterium of the Order. The War of 1870 caused a
rupture between the French and German Grand Priories.
1894 An International Secretariat of the Templars was formed
in Brussels to exercise Magisterial authority.
1930 The Prior of the Trinity of the Tower, Emile Briffaut,
proposed its abolition. Documents associated with the
palaprien Templars were deposited in the Belgian archives.
1932 Nine former Templars of the Trinity of the Tower formed
the Grand Priory of Belgium. At the first chapter it was
decided to name the order: The Sovereign and Military Order
of the Temple of Jerusalem. A Grand Prior was chosen.
1933 The Belgian Grand Priory restored an international
association of Templar Grand Priories. A Magisterial Council
was formed with Theodore Covias as Regent.
1934 Emile-Isaac Vandenberg became Regent and Guardian of
the Order. He devoted his energy and talent to revitalizing
Templar Priories across Europe, including those of Italy and
of Switzerland. 1942 Fearing the suppression of the Templars
during the German occupation of Belgium in the Second World
War, Vandenberg transferred the archives of the Order to the
care of the Portuguese Grand Prior, Antonio Campello de
Sousa Fontes. Vandenberg retained the Title and Office of
1945 At the war’s end, Vandenberg requested the return of
the archives, but Antonio Campello de Sousa Fontes ignored
the requests. When Vandenberg died suddenly, de Sousa Fontes
assumed the title of Regent. While some Priories accepted
his authority, others did not.
1947 Revised Statutes were issued by de Sousa Fontes. There
is no record of them being approved by a Convent General.
1948 In an attempt to retain the Regency in his family
without record of authority from a Convent General, de Sousa
Fontes designated his son, Fernando Campello de Sousa Fontes,
by a “Proces Verbal” as his successor.
1959 Some Templars separated from de Sousa Fontes’
1960 Fernando Campello de Sousa Fontes assumed the regency
upon the death of his father, eventually styling himself
Prince Regent. In the early 1960s, Anton Leuprecht, the
Grand Prior of Switzerland and Mondial Chieftain of All
Autonomous Grand Priories, invited Americans to join his
Swiss Grand Priory.
1962 At the request of Anton Leuprecht, William Y. Pryor,
with other American Knights Templar, initiated action to
form an Autonomous American Grand Priory. In June corporate
documents were filed in Newark, New Jersey. On June 29 the
American Grand Priory was recognized under the laws of New
Jersey as a corporate body. The self-styled Prince Regent,
de Sousa Fontes, recognized the American Grand Priory under
its first Grand Prior, Crolian William Edelen.
1964 His Majesty, Peter II, King of Yugoslavia living in
exile, became the Royal Patron of the American Grand Priory.
1970 In 1969, de Sousa Fontes issued a Magistral Edict
convoking a Convent General that would meet in three
sessions. The first session met in Paris in September, 1970.
During this meeting, it appears a schism took place. Grand
Priors who had not accepted the de Sousa Fontes obedience
formed a separate association, known as the Ordo
Internationalis MilitiaeTempli. General Antoine Zdrojewski,
the Prior General of Europe, was chosen as the Grand Master
of this new alliance. DeSouza Fontes declared the session
1972 At the second session in Chicago, Illinois, various
resolutions were approved. Resolution III stated that the
Order was to be “universal and not limited to any one
nationality or language,” though Latin was recognized as
“the official language.” Resolution VI authorized a search
for a member of a hereditary house to become Grand Master.
The houses of Hohenzollern, Oldenburg, and Windsor were
1973 At the third session, held in Tomar, Portugal, a
Resolution was adopted that the Order “shall be a Christian
Order. The word “Catholic” in the Statutes shall be replaced
with CHRISTIAN.” The American Grand Prior, Gordon Malvern
Fair Stick, was elected Lieutenant of the Order, and several
other American Templars were elected to the Grand Magistral
Council. General Zdrojewski reformed the statutes of the
OIMT Confederation. Each member Grand Priory was recognized
1975 Upon becoming King of Spain, Juan Carlos authorized the
restoration of the four Spanish orders: Alcantara, Calatrava,
Montesa and Santiago, as Catholic, Chivalric and Royal. The
Holy See granted the Crown the Grand Mastership and
Perpetual Administration of these Spanish orders under their
1981 The Grand Priory of Scandinavia was formed, uniting the
Priories of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
1982 An Autonomous Grand Priory of Scotland was recognized
by Anton Leupreucht.
1987 The International Federative Alliance (IFA) was
organized at the castle of Siguenza with the participation
of the Grand Priories of England, France, Scandinavia,
Scotland and Spain. The purpose was to “group all the
autonomous Priories in the world to achieve unity, and under
the Primitive Rule to proceed to the election of a universal
Grand Master and Magisterial Council.”
1990 DeFontes issued revised Statutes. Article 11 allowed
him to become Grand Master, if a Grand Master could not be
elected with 903 days. The “Prince Regent” could also
designate his successor. These revised Statutes were to be
presented before a future Convent General.
1992 Maximos V Hakin, Patriarch of the Melkite Catholic
Church, became the Religious Protector of the Grand Priories
of Austria, England, German and NATO. King Carl Gustaf XI
recognized the Templar Grand Priory of Sweden; King Harold
recognized the Templar Grand Priory of Norway; and the
President of Finland gave recognition to the Finnish Grand
1993 De Fontes, presented his revised Statutes to a Convent
General in Santiago, Spain (Toja). They were neither
considered, nor approved.
1995 In June at an International Conclave of Templars in
London it was decided to hold a Grand Convent in Salzburg,
Austria. DeFontes refused to authorize the meeting. At
Salzburg I, recognition was withdrawn from de Fontes as head
of the OSMTH. A Grand Council of Grand Priors was formed to
administer the Order. The Statutes were to be revised and
updated. Candidates for Grand Master were to be identified.
1996 In March the Grand Council of the OSMTH met in Paris.
In order to promote unity among the Templars, a proposal was
made to de Fontes, offering him the title Prince Regent
Emeritus as an honorary position in the Order. The offer was
Salzburg II: In November a Grand Convent met to consider
revised statues, candidates for Grand Master and
recommendations for cooperation and eventual association
with Priories that had not accepted or rejected the de Sousa
Fontes obedience. When Dr. Werner Rind, the Secretary
General, tried to impose his will upon the Grand Priors
regarding the nature of the Order and insisted upon his
candidate for Grand Master, the meeting ended. The Grand
Priors, in order to preserve unity formed the International
Grand Council with Sir Roy Redgrave, as Grand Commander. The
Templar Order of Merit was created to recognize and honor
both members and nonmembers who have performed significant
service to humanity.
1997 Princess Elisabeth of Ysenburg und Büdingen, Princess
of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Duchess of
Schleswig-Holstein, Stormam, Ditmars and Oldenburg, became
the Royal Protector of The Grand Priory of the United
States. The International Grand Council met in Alexandria,
1998 The Grand Magistral of the OSMTH met in Turku, Finland,
July 3-4. Sir Roy Redgrave was elected as the interim Grand
Master for a term of 18 months. RADM James J. Carey was
elected as the Grand Commander for a term of three years.
1999 For the SMOTJ to be recognized by the United Nations as
a non-governing organization, the Order was registered as an
international agency in Switzerland to give the Order
greater influence over international charitable and
humanitarian endeavors. The search for international unity
continues, while promoting the basic tenets of the Order:
Christianity, chivalry, and charity.
Notes from the Author:
In the development of this Chronology, the author had to
reconcile material, often contradictory and inconsistent,
from various sources, including the following:
1. A New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (1970) has good
background on not only Freemasonry but on the “New
Templarism” of Fabré-Palaprat.
2. Two French sources provided in depth information on the
19th century Order of the Temple and on Fabré-Palaprat.
Maillard de Chambure, Règle et Statuts Secret des Templiers
(1840); Steenackers, Histoire des Ordres de Chevalerie...en
3. A more scholarly approach is found in The New Knighthood:
A History of the Order of the Temple (1992) by Malcolm
Barber. He not only traces the history of the medieval
Templars but deals with the myths and legends that developed
after the death of de Molay. Another of his publications is
The Trial of the Templars.
4. Lt. Col. Gayre of Gayre & Nigg, whose sympathies are with
the Knights of Malta, includes a chapter on modern
Templarism in his The Knightly Twilight-A Glimpse of the
Chivalric and Nobiliary Underworld. Of interest are the two
conflicting lists of Grand Masters. He compares the de Sousa
Fonteslist with that of Guillermo de Grau-Moctezuma Rife,
that is based on the survival of the Order in Catalonia and
the midi of France after 1314 as the Order of the Occident.
Pope Clement V had suppressed only the
Order of the Orient. In 1959 Prince Guillermo de
Grau-Moctezuma Rife used the list of Grand Masters
associated with the Order of the Occident to justify his
5. Stephen Howarth in The Knights Templar (1982) offers a
more popular history. Some of his theories can be
questioned, such as that of the mysterious “idol” which the
Templars were accused of worshipping. He identifies it as
the Shroud of Turin.
6. Andre J. Paraschi in his Restauracao da ordem do templo
(1993) argued that there has been no legitimate Templar
Order since 1312. He concluded that the Templars orders of
the present are false and illegitimate. He created his own
Templar Order associated with Eastern Orthodoxy, making
himself Grand Master. He claimed the recognition of the
Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria. Both the Patriarch
and Paraschi are deceased. As for Grau-Moctezuma Rige, he
has fled to Andorra to avoided being arrested in Spain for
issuing fraudulent patents of nobility.
7. Desmond Seward’s The Monks of War (1972) provides good
background on the other orders. Chapter 16, “Heirs of the
Military Orders” details the history of various orders form
the 17th century, including the Knights of St. John, the
Order of Lazarus, the Teutonic Knights and the Spanish
8. J.M. Upton-Ward in The Rule of the Templars (1992) gives
a translation with commentary of The Primitive Rule dating
from 1129 and The Hierarchical Statutes from around 1165.
9. Of further importance is the Statues of 1705, including
the Charter of Transmission (1995) complied and translated
by Dame Martha Kona and Dame Grace Lynn of the Chicago
Priory of St. Norbert. The copy acquired from the National
Archives in Paris probably dates from the restored document
of 1838. The de Sousa Fontes statues of 1947 and 1990 are
included with the results of the Chapter General meeting in
10. An article entitle The “Charta Transmissionis” of
Larmenius by Fred J. W. Crowe in the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum
(XXIV/1911) offers a detail examination of the Larmenius
Charter. Since the Charter was in cyphers, he provides his
Latin translation contrasting it with the early 19th century
Latin versions. A report from The Rennes le Chateau Research
Group, located in London, concluded that The Charter dates
from the 18th century, because its language “is very much
that of early Freemasonry....and this document was an
attempt to separate this Templar revival from the developing
Freemasonry.” This was part of a report sent to Chev. James
McGrath, Grand Prior of the Scottish Knight Templars in
11. According to the Levitikon John the Baptist was the
founder of the Johannite Secret Church. An uninterrupted
line of Grand Pontiffs succeeded him. In 1118 the Grand
Pontiff, Theocletes, initiated Hugues de Payens into the
mysteries of the church, thus creating a secret order within
the Templars. Every Templar Grand Master was also an hidden
Johannite Grand Pontiff, including Fabré-Palaprat, who
claimed such succession for himself.
12. Materials from the Grand Priory of Belgium added
considerable light on the events of the 1930’s and 1940’s
regarding the modern Templar Order. Additional materials
recently received from Chev. Patrick E. Rea, Prior of St.
Norbert’s, were helpful regarding the development of
various European Grand Priories and the IFA.
13. “The First Eight Years of the Sovereign Military Order
of the Temple of Jerusalem, Inc. in the U.S.A.” by William
Y. Pryor (Grand Prior of the American Grand Priory from
1965-1968), dated August 10, 1970, provided helpful
information on the development of the American Grand Priory.
14. This more recent title provides an interesting French
view. René Lachaud, Templiers; Chevaliers d’Orient et
d’Occident. (St-Jean-de-Braye, France, 1997) There is no
consistent list of alleged Grand Masters or Regents after
1314, and particularly after the Fabré-Palaprat
“restoration” in 1804. There exists a wealth of books and
articles on the Templars, but the question remains: how much
of Templar history is bogus and make-believe? The challenge
for the modern Templars is to separate fact from fiction,
history from myth. Indeed no small task. Through this
November 2, 1998 Chronology revision, I am making my small
contribution. For as Eco writes in Foucaults’ Pendulum
(1988) “The Templars have something to do with everything.”
Copyright, 2000 The Sovereign Military Order of the Temple
of Jerusalem, Inc.
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The Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem
Priory of St. Michael and St. George